Journal directory listing - Volume 67 (2022) - Journal of NTNU【67(1)】March (Special Issue: Exhibit Asia: Exploring National Image and Identity through Exhibition)

Comparison of Yinping Tone Sandhi and Diminutive Tone in Dongshi Hakka: A Perspective on Sociophonetics Author: Yueh-Chen Chang (Institute of Taiwan Languages and Language Teaching, National Tsing Hua University, Doctoral Student), Ming-Chung Cheng (Institute of Hakka Language and Communication, National United University, Professor)

Vol.&No.:Vol. 67, No. 1
Date:March, 2022

    This study explored Yinping tone sandhi (YTS) and diminutive tone (DT) in Dongshi Dapu Hakka from a sociophonetic perspective. This study also explored the tonal difference between YTS and DT and the factors that affect it, such as register, age, and sex. Sixty participants, divided into six groups on the basis of age and sex, were recruited. Speech data were gathered using three wordlists and a reading passage with YTSs and DTs. Praat was used to measure the fundamental frequency (F0) of YTSs, DTs, and citation tones, and the F0 values of the citation tones were used as the basis for normalizing YTSs and DTs into a 5 point tonal scale and calculate the F0-related parameters. The results were as follows. First, although traditional dialectology indicates that the tonal value of YTS and DT is [35], they were [33] and [34] in this study, depending on speech formality and age. Second, YTS was higher in tonal pattern than DT, and DT was longer than YTS, except among the young generation. Third, age induced a significant difference in all F0-related parameters, especially among young participants, but sex did not. Fourth, only a slight difference in the tonal pattern of the DTs was observed among the three generations for both the wordlists and reading passages. However, a significant difference in the tonal patterns of the YTSs was observed between the younger and older generations, with the tonal value of the older generations being [34] and that of the younger generation being [33]. Fifth, the YTS tonal pattern of the young generation was downgraded and overlapped that of their DTs. The young generation exhibited a substantial change in YTS, did not follow the YTS rules, and read YTS as Yinping citation tone [33]. This might be due to the influence of Taiwanese Mandarin. Last, this study explored the differences between sociophonetics and traditional dialectology in terms of the phonetics–phonology dichotomy to explain why the young generation read YTS as the Yinping citation tone.

Keywords:diminutive, Dongshi, Hakka, fundamental frequency, tone sandhi

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APA FormatChang, Y.-C., & Cheng, M.-C. (2022). Comparison of Yinping Tone Sandhi and Diminutive Tone in Dongshi Hakka: A Perspective on Sociophonetics. Journal of National Taiwan Normal University, 67(1), 101-144.
Chicago FormatChang, Yueh-Chen, and Ming-Chung Cheng. “Comparison of Yinping Tone Sandhi and Diminutive Tone in Dongshi Hakka: A Perspective on Sociophonetics.” Journal of National Taiwan Normal University 67, no. 1 (2022): 101-144.